lran is situated in Southwest Asia, the Middle-East. This vast
country lies in the Northern Hemisphere with the surface of
1,645,195 km, between latitudes 25 lo 40 degrees north and
longitudes 44 lo 63 degrees east of the Greenwich Meridian.
lran’s other name is Persia, which is mostly used in historical,
cultural, and artistic fields, especially in Europe. lran has 30
provinces and its capital is Tehran.
The land of lran has access from the north to the Mazandarah
(Caspian) Sea through a 500 km coastal border. lran’s southern
coastal border is 1500 km long, embracing the northern part of
the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf. The two mountain ranges,
Alborz with an east-west trend and the Zagros with a northwest-southeast
trend are lran’s two high masses. They both have
exposed (above timbertine) summits with altitudes of over 4000
m, These two mountain chains have had outstanding effects on
lran’s nature and climate. ln addition, the eastern, southern, and
central mountains in lran altogether cover half of its area. The
loftiest point in lran is the summit of Damavand volcano, at 5620
m, while its lowest point lies in Lut plain, less than 100 m. There
are 1500 mountains in lran that are higher than 3000 m with 600
summits over 4000 m.
More than half of lran’s lowlands lie in its deserts. The two big
playa of Lut and Kavir plain embrace lran’s widest deseft and
lran’s three coastal provinces, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan
are confined on both sides by the Alborz mountain chain and
the Mazandaran Sea. Here luxuriant green forests have spread
over an area of nearly 2 million acres. Also in this land, the oak
forests of the Zagros cover a 10-million acre area. Pistachio and
mountain almond shrubs cover 2 million acres of mostly sparse
Apart from the mountains, deserts and forests, fertile plains have
formed lran’s other lowlands. These plains have their most coverage i”
south-west and north regions.
Land of lran has a wide diversity of climates and sub-climates. The
difference of air temperatures sometimes reaches to more than 50″C
in two points in lran. This country has always had four seasons at the
same time and one can encounter and enjoy the different seasons in
different places simultaneously.
The scope of biological diversity within lran is great, particularly
considering the number of species unique to lran: plants (over 8000
different species and 1000 lran-specific species), birds (over 500
species), reptiles (200 species), mammals (over 190 species). fish
(over 170 species), insects (over 20,000 species), and amphibians (20
Among the animals living in lran, one can mention the world’s smallest
mammal (a 2 gram dwarf insectivore), world’s largest mammal (the 130 ton
Great Blue Whale), world’s swiftest animal (the Asian Cheetah). and
native species (ibex, fallow deer, lynx, Asian Zebra,…
The yew trees of the Heer Kani forests in lran are relics from the
ancient trees of the Tertiary Era, of which only fossils can be found
now in Europe and are therefore so valuable and unique in the world.
valuable and unique in the world.